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Alcohol consumption and the risk of prostate cancer

The authors of a study published in the journal Nutrients, state that it is unclear as to whether alcohol consumption is associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) or not.
A linear and non-linear dose–response meta-analyses of cohort studies on alcohol consumption and PCa risk was conducted by types of alcohol (total, wine, beer, and liquor) and PCa (non-aggressive and aggressive). Pubmed and Embase were searched through April 2020 to identify relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated.
For non-aggressive PCa, by alcohol type, the risk increased linearly with liquor (RR per 14 g/day intake being 1.04 (95% CI = 1.02–1.06) and non-linearly with beer, with increased risk observed in the lower range (RR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05; 14 g/day), with 1.05 (95% CI = 1.01–1.08) at 28 g/day. Wine was not significantly associated with the risk of non-aggressive PCa.
For aggressive PCa, a non-linear relationship of diverse shapes was indicated for all types of alcohol in the sensitivity analysis. Compared to non-drinking, a significant positive association was more apparent at lower dose for liquor (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04–1.20 at 14 g/day; RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03–1.31 at 28 g/day) but at higher doses for wine (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90–1.16 at 28 g/day, RR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08–1.67 at 56 g/day). In contrast, decreased risks were indicated at lower doses of beer (RR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79–0.92 at 14 g/day; RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.70–0.90 at 28 g/day. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with both types of PCa.
In this study, heterogeneous associations were found between alcohol intake and PCa by types of alcohol and PCa, the authors say.
Source: Hong, S.; Khil, H.; Lee, D.H.; Keum, N.; Giovannucci, E.L. Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2188.

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