The possibility that alcohol consumption should be considered as a "protective factor" for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested by several casecontrol studies. However, other case-control studies and data from prospective longitudinal cohort studies have been inconclusive.
A systematic review was undertaken which included all the eligible studies published on PD risk related with alcohol consumption, and conducted a meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.
The meta-analysis included 26 eligible retrospective case-control studies (8,798 PD patients, 15,699 controls) and 5 prospective longitudinal cohort studies (2,404 PD patients, 600,592 controls) on alcohol consumption and PD. In retrospective case-control studies the frequency of PD patients never drinkers was higher and the frequency of heavy + moderate drinkers was lower [diagnostic OR (95% CI) 1.33(1.20-1.48) and 0.74(0.64-0.85)], respectively, when compared to healthy controls. In contrast, in prospective studies, the differences were not significant with the exception of a trend towards a higher frequency of non-drinkers in PD women and a significantly lower frequency of moderate + heavy drinkers in PD men in those studies which stratified data by gender.
The present meta-analysis suggests an inverse association (protective effect) between moderate alcohol consumption and Parkinsons Disease, which is supported by the results of case-control studies but not clearly by prospective ones.
Source: Alcohol consumption and risk for Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Jiménez-Jiménez FJ, Alonso-Navarro H, García-Martín E, Agúndez JAG. J Neurol. 2018 Aug 28. .